A multiplayer game is a game which is played by several players. The players might be independent opponents, formed into teams or be just a single team pitted against the game. Games with many independent players are difficult to analyse formally in a game-theoretical way as the players may form coalitions.
John Nash proved that games with several players have a stable solution provided that coalitions between players are not allowed. He won the Nobel prize for economics for this important result which extended von Neumann's theory of zero-sum games. Such a stable strategy is called a Nash equilibrium.
If cooperation between players is allowed, then the game is more complex. Many concepts have been developed to analyse such games. While these have had some partial success in the fields of economics, politics and conflict, no good general theory has yet been developed.
In quantum game theory, it has been found that the introduction of quantum information into multiplayer games allows a new type of equilibrium strategy which is not found in traditional games. The entanglement of players's choices can have the effect of a contract by preventing players from profiting from betrayal. Read more about: Multi-player gaming
SUSE Linux (pronounced /ËˆsuËsÉ™/, German: [ËˆzuËzÉ™]) is a computer operating system. It is built on top of the Linux kernel and is distributed with system and application software from various projects. Suse Linux is of German origin and mainly developed in Europe. The first version of this distribution appeared in early 1994, making SUSE the oldest existing commercial distribution. It is known for its YaST configuration tool. The developer rights are owned by Novell, Inc. since 2003, when the company bought SUSE. Novell, one of the founding members of the Open Invention Network, opened widely the distribution development to outside contributors in 2005, creating the openSUSE Project.
Novell employed over 500 developers working on SUSE in 2004.
SUSE family products
Novell offers SUSE Linux under two major branches, openSUSE and SUSE Linux Enterprise.
* openSUSE: This is a free distribution, including some of the latest "bleeding edge" Linux technologies and designed for home users and enthusiasts.
* SUSE Linux Enterprise: This is Novell's open-source solution for major enterprise, widely tested and certified.
openSUSE vs SUSE Linux Enterprise
The former, openSUSE, is a freely available, community-oriented distribution project that releases on a comparatively frequent basis and generally uses more recent versions of the various open source projects that it includes. The SUSE Linux Enterprise branch is Novell's commercial edition of SUSE Linux, which Novell releases much less frequently in order to offer long term support more effectively for enterprise production deployments.
Novell typically uses a version of the openSUSE distribution as a basis for creating SUSE Linux Enterprise products. Novell states that the reduced number of packages is preferred for en Read more about: SUSE
Mac OS X (pronounced /mÃ¦k oÊŠ É›s tÉ›n/) is a line of computer operating systems developed, marketed, and sold by Apple Inc., and since 2002 has been included with all new Macintosh computer systems. It is the successor to Mac OS 9, the final release of the "classic" Mac OS, which had been Apple's primary operating system since 1984.
Mac OS X, whose "X" represents the Roman numeral for "10" and is a prominent part of its brand identity, is a Unix-based operating system, built on technologies developed at NeXT between the second half of the 1980s and Apple's purchase of the company in late 1996. Its sixth release Mac OS X v10.5 "Leopard" gained UNIX 03 certification while running on Intel processors.
The first version released was Mac OS X Server 1.0 in 1999, and a desktop-oriented version, Mac OS X v10.0 "Cheetah" followed on March 24, 2001. Releases of Mac OS X are named after big cats: for example, Mac OS X v10.6 is usually referred to by Apple and users as "Snow Leopard". The server edition, Mac OS X Server, is architecturally identical to its desktop counterpart, and includes tools to facilitate management of workgroups of Mac OS X machines, and to provide access to network services. These tools include a mail transfer agent, a Samba server, an LDAP server, a domain name server, and others. It is pre-loaded on Apple's Xserve server hardware, but can be run on almost all of Apple's current selling computer models.
Apple also produces specialized versions of Mac OS X for use on three of its consumer devices: the iPhone OS for the iPhone and iPod Touch, and an unnamed version for the Apple TV. Read more about: Mac osx
A videoconference or video conference (also known as a videoteleconference) is a set of interactive telecommunication technologies which allow two or more locations to interact via two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. It has also been called 'visual collaboration' and is a type of groupware. It differs from a videophone call in that it is designed to serve a conference rather than individuals.
Videophone calls can be referred to as 'videocalls'. They differ from videoconferencing in that they expect to serve individuals, not groups. However that distinction is becoming increasingly blurred with technology improvements such as increased bandwidth and sophisticated software clients that can allow for multiple parties on a call. In general everyday usage the term videoconferencing is now frequently used instead of video phonecall for point-to-point calls between two units. Both videophone calls and videoconferencing can also be referred to as a video link.
Webcams are popular, relatively low cost devices which can provide live video and audio streams via personal computers, and can be used with many software clients for video calls. A separate webpage article is devoted to that product.
A videoconference system is generally higher cost than a videophone and deploys greater capabilities. A videoconference (also known as a videoteleconference) allows two or more locations to interact via live two-way video and audio transmissions simultaneously. This is generally accomplished by the use of a multipoint control unit (a centralized distribution and call management system) or by a similar non-centralized multipoint capability embedded in each videoconferencing unit. Again, technology improvements have circumvented traditional definitions by allowing multiple party videoconferencing via web-based applications. A separate webpage article is devoted to videoconferencing.
Mac OS is the trademarked name for a series of graphical user interface-based operating systems developed by Apple Inc. (formerly Apple Computer, Inc.) for their Macintosh line of computer systems. The Macintosh user experience is credited with popularizing the graphical user interface. The original form of what Apple would later name the "Mac OS" was the integral and unnamed system software first introduced in 1984 with the original Macintosh, usually referred to simply as the System software.
Apple deliberately downplayed the existence of the operating system in the early years of the Macintosh to help make the machine appear more user-friendly and to distance it from other operating systems such as MS-DOS, which was more arcane and technically challenging. Much of this early system software was held in ROM, with updates typically provided free of charge by Apple dealers on floppy disk. As increasing disk storage capacity and performance gradually eliminated the need for fixing much of an advanced GUI operating system in ROM, Apple explored cloning while positioning major operating system upgrades as separate revenue-generating products, first with System 7.1 and System 7.5, then with Mac OS 7.6 in 1997.
Early versions of the Mac OS were compatible only with Motorola 68000-based Macintoshes. As Apple introduced computers with PowerPC hardware, the OS was upgraded to support this architecture as well. Mac OS 8.1 was the last version that could run on a 68000-class processor (the 68040). Mac OS X, which has superseded the "Classic" Mac OS, is compatible with both PowerPC and Intel processors through version 10.5 ("Leopard"). Version 10.6 ("Snow Leopard") supports only Intel processors. Read more about: Mac